13 Intangible assets — Group


Balance at 1 April 2010 29,111 2,152 31,263
Effect of movements in foreign exchange 617 617
Balance at 31 March 2011 29,728 2,152 31,880
Balance at 1 April 2011 29,728 2,152 31,880
Acquisition 732 817 1,549
Effect of movements in foreign exchange 78 4 82
Balance at 31 March 2012 30,538 2,973 33,511
Amortisation and impairment

Balance at 1 April 2010 13,689 1,216 14,905
Amortisation for the year 261 261
Effect of movements in foreign exchange 174 174
Balance at 31 March 2011 13,863 1,477 15,340
Balance at 1 April 2011 13,863 1,477 15,340
Amortisation for the year 281 281
Effect of movements in foreign exchange 21 21
Balance at 31 March 2012 13,884 1,758 15,642
Net book value

At 1 April 2010 15,422 936 16,358
At 31 March 2011 15,865 675 16,540
At 31 March 2012 16,654 1,215 17,869

Other intangible assets are made up of customer relationships acquired as part of the acquisitions of Serco Ryan Ltd and Power Steel and Electro-Plating Works SDN Bhd (PSEP). The remaining amortisation period left on these assets is 1.5 and 11.75 years respectively.

There were no impairments made during 2012 (2011: £nil).

The following cash-generating units have significant carrying amounts of goodwill:

Special Fasteners Engineering Co. Ltd (Taiwan) 9,423 9,370
TR Fastenings AB (Sweden) 1,063 1,063
Lancaster Fastener Company Ltd (UK) 1,245 1,245
Serco Ryan Ltd (within TR Fastenings Ltd) (UK) 4,083 4,083
Power Steel and Electro-Plating Works SDN BHD (Malaysia) 736
Other 104 104

16,654 15,865

The Group tests goodwill annually for impairment. The recoverable amount of cash-generating units is determined from value in use calculations.

Value in use was determined by discounting the future cash flows generated from the continuing use of the unit. In this method, the free cash flows after funding internal needs of the subject company are forecast for a finite period of five years based on actual operating results, budgets and economic market research. Beyond the finite period, a terminal (residual) value is estimated using an assumed stable cash flow figure.

The values assigned to the key assumptions represent management's assessment of future trends in the fastenings market and are based on both external and internal sources of historical data.

The table below highlights the key assumptions:

Pre-tax discount rate 16% 17% 16% 17% 16% 16%
Long-term growth rate 4% 4% 3% 3% 2% 2%

Long-term growth rate

Five-year management plans are used for the Group's value in use calculations. Long-term growth rate into perpetuity has been determined as the lower of:

  • the nominal GDP rates for the country of operation; and
  • the long-term compound annual growth rate in EBITDA in years six to ten estimated by management.

Pre-tax risk adjusted discount rate

The discount rate applied to the cash flows of each of the Group's operations is based on the risk free rate for ten-year bonds issued by the government in the respective market, adjusted for a risk premium to reflect both the increased risk of investing in equities and the systematic risk of the specific Group operating company.

In making this adjustment, inputs required are the equity market risk premium (that is the increased return required over and above a risk free rate by an investor who is investing in the market as a whole) and the risk adjustment, beta, applied to reflect the risk of the specific Group operating company relative to the market as a whole.

In determining the risk adjusted discount rate, management has applied an adjustment for the systematic risk to each of the Group's operations determined using an average of the betas of comparable listed fastener distribution and manufacturing companies and, where available and appropriate, across a specific territory. Management has used a forward-looking equity market risk premium that takes into consideration studies by independent economists, the average equity market risk premium over the past ten years and the market risk premiums typically used by investment banks in evaluating acquisition proposals.

The table above discloses pre-tax discount rates of 16% across the three CGUs. This takes into account certain components such as various discount rates reflecting different risk premiums and tax rates in the respective regions. Overall, the Board is confident the pre-tax adjusted discount rates adequately reflect the circumstances in each region and are in accordance with IAS 36.

Sensitivity to changes in assumptions

Other than as disclosed below, management believes that no reasonably possible change in any of the above key assumptions would cause the carrying value of any cash-generating unit to exceed its recoverable amount.

The estimated values in use at 31 March 2012 of the Group's operations in Taiwan and Sweden were £1.35 million and £0.55 million above their respective carrying value and, consequently, any material adverse change in key assumptions would, in isolation, cause an impairment loss to be recognised.

The table below shows what the variables used in the 'value in use' calculations for Taiwan and Sweden need to change to (in isolation) in order for the estimated recoverable amount to be equal to its carrying value.

Pre-tax adjusted discount rate 17.0% 19.0%
Budgeted change in EBIT 9.2% 14.5%
Long-term growth rate 2.5% <0%

Other subsidiaries are not included in the calculation as their individual cash-generating units show a significant headroom over the goodwill carrying value.

The £0.05 million increase in the goodwill of SFE refers to a foreign exchange gain, as the investment is held in Singapore dollars within TR Asia Investment Holdings Pte Ltd.